The recent explosion in the price of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies has inspired me to start a new hobby: helping people recover lost Bitcoin wallets.
As might be expected of early adopters in an anonymous Internet cryptocurrency, many of my customers are information security professionals. It seems that many of them set up so many security measures that they locked themselves out of their Bitcoin. On the other hand, I’ve also heard from many more people who lost their Bitcoin or had it stolen because they either did not follow basic security practices or followed them without understanding their implications and also lost their coins. The inherent balance in information security is that you need walls in place to protect against threats, but the walls you put up to protect yourself can lock you out if you forget your way in.
I, therefore, want to suggest a list of steps that you can take right now to secure your crypto stash. These measures should be both comprehensive enough to keep you safe without being so complicated that you will be locked out of it, or tempted to disable security altogether.
1: Store your wallet seed somewhere safe.
People come to me when they lose their Bitcoins any number of ways, but the one common element in their stories is that they failed to save their recovery seed. Most modern wallets ask you to save your recovery seed/mnemonic phrase somewhere safe when you set up your wallet. You can keep it in a safe place (such as an actual safe) or an encrypted flash drive (I use Veracrypt). Triple-check both the words and the word order, as one person I worked with wrote down his seed incorrectly and lost all of his coins.
2: Use a hardware wallet — or a strongly encrypted software wallet.
A hardware wallet (an electronic device dedicated to storing Bitcoin) such as a Trezor or Ledger is the safest place for your Bitcoin. Read my Trezor review on Amazon to understand the pros and cons of using one.
If you don’t use a hardware wallet, use a wallet which supports strong encryption. The JAXX wallet, for example, can be easily hacked and your coins stolen. I use the Electrum wallet, which allows me to encrypt my wallet file.
3: Encrypt your hard drive.
Encrypting your whole hard drive is essential if you don’t want anyone with physical or virtual access to your computer to be able to extract all of your data. Modern versions of Windows and Apple iOS make this easy.
If you have a Mac, encrypt your hard drive with FileVault. If you have Windows, you can use BitLocker to do the same thing. Personally, I do not use Windows to make any Bitcoin transactions because securing the operating system is too cumbersome, specifically because of the steps below.
4: Set a firmware password.
Apple computers allow you to set a firmware password which prevents your computer from being accessed without your password or using an external device. This is an additional security measure which makes your computer a lot less useful to thieves as it requires a visit to an Apple store and a proof of purchase to reset it. While older Apple computers had some simple workarounds to disable the firmware lock, modern ones are much more difficult for criminals to unlock.
5: Automatically lock your computer when you’re away.
Hard drive encryption will not help you if someone