man King William The Conqueror‏‎, son of Duke Robert III Normandy and Herleva de Falaise‏.
Born ‎ Oct 14, 1024 at Falaise, Calvados, France, baptized ‎ 1066 at during Norman Conquest, as adult, died ‎ Sep 9, 1087 at Hermentruvilleby, Rouen, France‎, 62 years, buried ‎ at Abbey of St Step,Caen,Calvados,France. Occupation: 7th Duke of Normandy, King of England (25 Dec 1066-1087)
William I The Conqueror, King of England from 1066 to 1087, was a man ofremarkable political and military skill and a dominant force in WesternEurope. The Domesday Survey of 1086 was a striking illustration of hisadministrative capabilities. William was the illegitimate son of Robert Iof Normandy and Herleve, a Tanner's daughter from Falaise, and becameDuke of Normandy as a child in 1035. William the Conqueror died whilecampaigning to maintain his hold on Maine and was buried in his ownmonastic foundation of Saint-Etienne at Caen. "The Encyclopedia of theMiddle Ages" Norman F. Cantor, General Editor.



Custom Field:<_FA> DUKE de NORMANDY
CustomField:<_FA Ruled 1066-1087

Married ‎ 1050/1051 at Castle of Angi, Normandy, Fra (approximately 33 years married) to:

woman Matilda of Flanders‏‎, daughter of Baldwin "the Pious" "debonnaire" of Flanders V V and Adelaide(Adela) de France‏.
Born ‎ 1031 at Flanders, Fra, died ‎ Nov 2, 1083 at Caen, Calvados, Fra‎, 51 or 52 years


man King Henry I England‏
Also known as: "Beauclerc", born ‎± Sep 1068 at Selby, Yorkshire, England, died ‎ Dec 1, 1135 at St. denis-le-Fermont, Near Gisors, Angers, Maine-Et-Loire, Fra‎, approximately 67 years, buried ‎ at Reading Abbey, Berkshire, England. Occupations: King of England (6 Aug 1100-1135), King of England (6 Aug 1100-1135)
after eating a surfeit of lampreys

2nd marriage/ relation
man King William The Conqueror‏‎, son of Duke Robert III Normandy and Herleva de Falaise‏.

Married/ Related to:

woman Maud Peverel‏‎

3rd marriage
man King William The Conqueror‏‎, son of Duke Robert III Normandy and Herleva de Falaise‏.

Married ‎ 1049 at Castle of Angi, Normandy, France (33 or 34 years married) to:

woman Matilda de Flanders‏‎, daughter of Count Baldwin V Count of Flanders and Princess Adela Capet Princess of France‏. Adoption parents: Baldwin V Count of Flanders and Princess Adela Alix Capet France Adoption parents: Baldwin V of Flanders Count Count and N.N. Adoption parents: Baldwin V of Flanders Count Count and Adèle (Alix) of France of France Adoption parents: Baudouin V , Count of Flanders , Count of Flanders and Adelaide(Adela) de France
Born ‎ 1031 at Flandres, died ‎ Nov 2, 1083 at Caen,Normandie‎, 51 or 52 years, buried ‎ at Church of the,Holy Trinity,Caen,France
Duchess of Normandy and Queen of England.
She was the ancestress of English rulers down to the present time (1991).
Two death dates: 2 or 3 Nov. 1083. Nomention in all this of a second hubby
as claimed by Kraentzler in line 1371. William was her second husband. Her first was Gerbod de Flandre, Advocate of the Abbey St. Bertin and St. Omer. Their daughter, Gundreda of Chester, married William de Warenne, First Earl of Surrey. Mostsources say Gundred/Gundrada was the daughter of William I. Birth dates given would indicate this is so while some experts dispute this.


woman Adela Princess of England‏
Born ‎ 1052 at Normandy, France, died ‎ Mar 8, 1134/1135 at Marsilly, Charente-Maritime, France‎, approximately 82 years
woman Gundred Princess of England‏
Born ‎ 1063 at Normandy, France, died ‎ May 27, 1085 at Norfolk, England‎, 21 or 22 years
man King Henry I England‏
Also known as: 'Beauclerc', born ‎ 1068 at Selby, Yorkshire, England, died ‎ Dec 1, 1135 at St. denis, Seine-St. Denis, France‎, 66 or 67 years, buried ‎ at Reading Abbey (which he founded)
Henry I was Duke of Normandy from 1106-1135 and King of England from1100-1135. William I left Normandy to his oldest son Robert II Curthoseand England to his next oldest son, William II Rufus. Henry was leftgreat wealth and eventually outmanuvered his brothers to become King ofEngland in 1100 and ruled 35 years. Henry is remembered for expanding andstrengthening royal justice, integrating the Norman and Anglo-Saxon legalsystems, and laying the foundation for more centralized royal rule. "TheEncyclopedia of the Middle Ages" Norman F. Cantor, General Editor.

King of England 1100-1135; duke of Normandy 1106-35
Source: Gary Boyd Roberts, The Royal Descents of 500 Immigrants, 1993, p 396
Source: The Royal Bastards of Medieval England, London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1984, p 63
Source: Heraldry by Anthony R Wagner in Medieval England, Oxford, v 1, 1958 pg. 347
Source Notes: Chris Given-Wilson and Alice Curteis, The Royal Bastards of Medieval England, Routledge & Kegan Paul (London, Boston) 1984, p 60-61; Henry I was one of the most effective kings ever to wear the English crown. He was of medium height, thick-set, with black hair which was already receding from his forehead at the age of thirty, deep, bright eyes, and a voice like thunder. Despite the voice, he was a man of few words; he preferred to listen and, once he had listened, to issue commands. When he issued commands, he expected to be obeyed; when aroused by disobedience or treachery, his temper was fearsome. He was a practical statesman of the highest ability, a man noted for his inflexible enforcement of the laws, his authoritarian handling of barons, and his inveterate hoarding of money. He knew that to be successful a king must be rich, and he missed no opportunity to increase his wealth. Like his father and brother, he could be cruel to the point of savagery: he believed in ruling, at least in part, by fear. Yet he was respected as well as feared, for he maintained peace in England for most of his reign, and won a reputation as a man of learning and one who encouraged other men of learning to his court: his nickname was Beauclerc. In his private life he was methodical and, in every aspect except one, abstemious: he kept regular hours, was noted for his personal piety, never drank, and partook of a plain diet. He was, however, an incessant womaniser. He fathered, by various mistresses, at least twenty royal bastards, more than any other kind in English history. One of Henry's greatest achievements was to unite the two parts of his father's Anglo-Norman empire. William the Conqueror, at his death in 1087, had left Normandy to his eldest son, Robert Curthose, England to his second son, William Rufus, while to Henry, his third son, he left only a hoard of silver. Yet Henry was by far the ablest of the three. In 1100, after Rufus had been 'accidentally' struck by an arrow while hunting in the New Forest (there has always been a suspicion that Henry himself may have been implicated in his brother's death), Henry seized the English throne; six years later, he defeated his brother Robert at the battle of Tinchebrau and overran the duchy of Normandy. Robert Curthose was led away to prison, where he remained until his death in 1134. Thus for the last thirty years of his life, Henry I was ruler of both England and Normandy, the most powerful monarch in Western Europe. ..... (P) The contemporary historian William of Malmesbury, while recognising the often brutal character of Henry's kingship, clearly admired his king: 'Inferior in wisdom to no king of modern time, he preferred contending by counsel rather than by the sword: if he could, he conquered without bloodshed ... Throughout his life he was wholly free from impure desires. ...' In the light of his twenty known bastards, this last comment appears to come as something of a surprise, but it is worth noting how Malmesbury continues: ' ... he was wholly free from impure desires for, as we have learned from those who were well informed, he partook of female blandishments not for the gratification of his lust, but for the sake of issue; nor did he condescend to casual intercourse, unless where it might produce that effect: in this respect [he was] the master of his inclinations, not the passive slave of desire.' Malmesbury provides us here with a fascinating view of the royal bastard in medieval society: not as the unfortunate by-product of a royal affair, the regrettable misfit likely to do little more than make demands on the royal purse, but as a child who could perform a useful role in the service of the king, who could provide very positive benefits for his or her father. ..... (P) Henry's unofficial families ... generated a vast network of relations in England, Ireland, Wales, Scotland, Brittany, Normandy and the French kingdom."

Source: William Richard Cutter, *New England Families*, NY 1913, p 1897-1898: "The pedigree of King Henry I. is as follows: (I) King Charles, of France, married Lady Rotrude. (II) Pepin L'Bref, married Lady Bertha de Leon. (III) Charlemagne, Emperor of the West, married Lady of Savoy. (IV) Louis I., King of France, married Lady Judith. (V) Charles II., King of France, married Lady Ermentrudic, daughter of the count of Orleans. (VI) Count Baldwin I., of Flanders, married Lady Judith [! repetition]. (VII) Count Baldwin II., of Flanders, married Lady Ethelwida. (VIII) Ardolph the Great, of Flanders, married Lady Alice, daughter of Count de Vermandois. (IX) Baldwin III., of Flanders, married Matilda of Saxony. (X) Ardolph II., of Flanders, married Lady Susanna, daughter of Duke of Italy. (XI) Baldwin IV., of Flanders, married Lady Eleanore of Normandy. (XII) Baldwin V., of Flanders, married Lady Adele, granddaughter of Hugh Capet. (XIII) Matilda, daughter of Baldwin V., married William the Conqueror, William I. of England. (XIV) Henry I., King of England, son of William the Conqueror.

"The pedigree of Edward I. is as follows:

(I) Egbert, Saxon king, first king of England, married Redburga. (II) Ethelwold, king of England, married Oshurga, daughter of the Earl of Osiac. (III) Alfred the Great of England, married Ethelbith. daughter of the Earl of Ethelran. (IV) Edward, of England, married Edgiva, daughter of Earl of Sigeline. (V) Edmund I., of England, married Elgiva. (VI) Edgar, of England, married Elfrida, daughter of Earl of Devon. (VII) Ethelred, of England, married Elgiva, daughter of Earl of Thorad. (VIII) Edmund II. of England, married Elgatha of Denmark. (IX) Prince Edward, King of England, married Agatha of Germany. (X) Princess Margaret of England, married Malcolm III., King of Scotland. (XI) Henry I., King of England, married Princess Matilda. (XII) Geoffrey, King of England, married Maud, Empress of Germany. (XIII) Henry II., King of England, married Eleanor, daughter of Duke of Aquitaine. (XIV) John, King of England, married Isabella, daughter of Count de Augouieme. (XV) Henry III., King of England, married Eleanor, daughter of Count of Provence. (XVI) Edward I., King of England, married Eleanor of Castile. (XVII) Princess Elizabeth, daughter of Edward I., married Humphrey, Earl of Hereford. (XVIII) William, Earl of Northampton, married Elizabeth. (XIX) Robert Fitz Alan, tenth Earl of Arundel, married Elizabeth. (XX) Sir Robert Groushill, knight, married Joan. (XXI) Thomas, first Lord Stanley, married Margaret. (XXII) Sir William Troutbeck. (XXIII) Jane Troutbeck married Sir William Griffith. (XXIV) Sir William Griffith married Jane Poleston. (XXV) Sibill Griffith married Owen ap Hugh. (XXVI) Jane Owen married Hugh Gwyn. (XXVII) Sibill Gwyn married James Powell. (XXVIII) Elizabeth Powell married Humphrey ap HUgh. (XXIX) Owen Humphrey married Jane. (XXX) Rebecca Humphrey married Robert Owen. (XXXI) Robert Owen married Susanna Hudson. (XXXII) Mary Owen married Henry Burr. (XXXIII) Rachel BUrr married Josiah Foster. (XXXIV) Mary Foster married Samuel Clement. (XXXV) Robert Wharton Clement married Sarah A. Mathis. (XXXVI) Samuel M. Clement married Annie Browning. (XXXVII) John Browning Clement.

"The pedigree of Hugh Capet is as follows: (I) Hengst, King of Saxons. (II) Hartwaker, Prince of Saxons. (III) Hattivigate, Prince of Saxons. (IV) Hulderic, King of Saxons. (V) Bodicus, King of Saxons. (VI) Berthold, King of Saxons. (VII) Sighard, King of Saxons. (VIII) Dietric, King of Saxons. (IX) Dobrogera, daughter of Dietric, King of Saxons, was son of Dobrogera. (X) Wenicke, King of Saxons, was son of Dobregera. (XI) Witekind, King of Saxons. (XII) Witekind II., Count of Wetten. (XIII) Witekind III., Count of Wetten. (XIV) Robert Fortes, Duke of France. (XV) Robert II., Duke of France. (XVI) Hugh the Great of Burgundy, Count of Paris. (XVII) Hugh Capet, King of France, married Adelia, daughter of Adelheld of Germany. (XVIII) Robert, King of France, married Constance of Provence. (XIX) Princess Adela of France married Baldwin V., of Flanders. (XX) Matilda, daughter of Baldwin V., married William the Conqueror of England. (XXI) Henry I. of England married Princess Matilda, daughter of Malcolm III., King of Scotland, and wife Princess Margaret of England."
woman Maud Margaret Princess of England‏
Born ‎ 1072, died ‎ UNKNOWN‎
woman Gundred‏
Born ‎± 1063, died ‎ 1085‎, approximately 22 years
Weis shows Gundred as daughter of Gherbod the Fleming, not King William.
man Henry I Beauclerc of England of England‏
Born ‎± 1068 at Selby, Yorkshire, England, died ‎ 1135 at St Denis-Ie-Fermont, Normandy‎, approximately 67 years, buried ‎ at Reading Abbey

To my (Roger W. Winget - knowledge,
this individual was still alive as of May 2000.

Acquired from Roger W. Winget (

Henry I, Beauclerc
(1100-1135 AD)

Born: 1068

Died: 1135

Parents: William the Conqueror and Mathilda of Flanders

Significant Siblings: Robert, William Rufus

Spouse: (1st) Eadgyth, daughter of Malcolm III of Scotland; (2nd)Adelaide of Louvain

Significant Offspring: William, Matilda, Robert de Mellent (Earl ofGloucester), Sibylla

Contemporaries: Louis VI ("Louis the Fat", King of France, 1108-1137),Roger of Salisbury, Anselm (Archbishop of Canterbury), Pope Pascal II
Henry I, the most resilient of the Norman kings (his reign lastedthirty-five years), was nicknamed "Beauclerc" (fine scholar) for hisabove average education. During his reign, the differences betweenEnglish and Norman society began to slowly evaporate. Reforms in theroyal treasury system became the foundation upon which later kings built.The stability Henry afforded the throne was offset by problems insuccession: his only surviving son, William, was lost in the wreck of theWhite Ship in November 1120.

The first years of Henry's reign were concerned with subduing Normandy.William the Conqueror divided his kingdoms between Henry's olderbrothers, leaving England to William Rufus and Normandy to Robert. Henryinherited no land but received £5000 in silver. He played each brotheroff of the other during their quarrels; both distrusted Henry andsubsequently signed a mutual accession treaty barring Henry from thecrown. Henry's hope arose when Robert departed for the Holy Land on theFirst Crusade; should William die, Henry was the obvious heir. Henry wasin the woods hunting on the morning of August 2, 1100 when William Rufuswas killed by an arrow. His quick movement in securing the crown onAugust 5 led many to believe he was responsible for his brother's death.In his coronation charter, Henry denounced William's oppressive policiesand promising good government in an effort to appease his barons. Robertreturned to Normandy a few weeks later but escaped final defeat until theBattle of Tinchebrai in 1106; Robert was captured and lived the remainingtwenty-eight years of his life as Henry's prisoner.

Henry was drawn into controversy with a rapidly expanding Church. Layinvestiture, the king's selling of clergy appointments, was heavilyopposed by Gregorian reformers in the Church but was a cornerstone ofNorman government. Henry recalled Anselm of Bec to the archbishopric ofCanterbury to gain baronial support, but the stubborn Anselm refused todo homage to Henry for his lands. The situation remained unresolved untilPope Paschal II threatened Henry with excommunication in 1105. He reacheda compromise with the papacy: Henry rescinded the king's divine authorityin conferring sacred offices but appointees continued to do homage fortheir fiefs. In practice, it changed little - the king maintained thedeciding voice in appointing ecclesiastical offices - but it a marked apoint where kingship became purely secular and subservient in the eyes ofthe Church.

By 1106, both the quarrels with the church and the conquest of Normandywere settled and Henry concentrated on expanding royal power. He mixedgenerosity with violence in motivating allegiance to the crown andappointing loyal and gifted men to administrative positions. By raisingmen out of obscurity for such appointments, Henry began to rely less onlanded barons as ministers and created a loyal bureaucracy. He was deeplyinvolved in continental affairs and therefore spent almost half of histime in Normandy, prompting him to create the position of justiciar - themost trusted of all the king's officials, the justiciar literally ruledin the king's stead. Roger of Salisbury, the first justiciar, wasinstrumental in organizing an efficient department for collection ofroyal revenues, the Exchequer. The Exchequer held sessions twice a yearfor sheriffs and other revenue-collecting officials; these officialsappeared before the justiciar, the chancellor, and several clerks andrendered an account of their finances. The Exchequer was an ingeniousdevice for balancing amounts owed versus amounts paid. Henry gainednotoriety for sending out court officials to judge local financialdisputes (weakening the feudal courts controlled by local lords) and curberrant sheriffs (weakening the power bestowed upon the sheriffs by hisfather).

The final years of his reign were consumed in war with France anddifficulties ensuring the succession. The French King Louis VI beganconsolidating his kingdom and attacked Normandy unsuccessfully on threeseparate occasions. The succession became a concern upon the death of hisson William in 1120: Henry's marriage to Adelaide was fruitless, leavinghis daughter Matilda as the only surviving legitimate heir. She wasrecalled to Henry's court in 1125 after the death of her husband, EmperorHenry V of Germany. Henry forced his barons to swear an oath ofallegiance to Matilda in 1127 after he arranged her marriage to thesixteen-year-old Geoffrey of Anjou to cement an Angevin alliance on thecontinent. The marriage, unpopular with the Norman barons, produced amale heir in 1133, which prompted yet another reluctant oath of loyaltyfrom the aggravated barons. In the summer of 1135, Geoffrey demandedcustody of certain key Norman castles as a show of good will from Henry;Henry refused and the pair entered into war. Henry's life ended in thissorry state of affairs - war with his son-in-law and rebellion on thehorizon - in December 1135.

Third surviving son of WIlliam the Conqueror.

Henry had at least 20 illegimate children. (The Kings & Queens ofBritain, John Cannon and Anne Hargreaves, Oxford University Press, page184, printed 2001)


Kings of England. Henry I, 1068-1135 (r.1100-1135), was the youngest sonof William I. On the death of his brother William Ii, he had himselfelected and crowned king while his older brother, Robert Ii, duke ofNormandy, was on crusade. In 1101 Robert invaded England, but Henrybought him off. Henry invaded Normandy in 1105, defeated his brother, andbecame duke of Normandy. In the meantime he had been involved in astruggle with Anselm over lay investiture. His later years were marked byhis attempts to obtain the succession for his daughter Matilda. UnderHenry's reign of order and progress, royal justice was strengthened.Henry II, 1133-89 (r.1154-89), was the son of Matilda and Geoffrey Iv,count of Anjou. Founder of the Angevin, or Plantagenet, line, he becameduke of Normandy in 1150 and in 1152 married Eleanor Of Aquitaine, thusgaining vast territories in France. In 1153 he invaded England and forcedStephen to acknowledge him as his heir. As king he restored order towar-ravaged England, subdued the barons, centralized the power ofgovernment in royalty, and strengthened royal courts. Henry's desire toincrease royal authority brought him into conflict with Thomas à Becket,whom he had made (1162) archbishop of Canterbury. The quarrel, whichfocused largely on the jurisdiction of the church courts, came to a headwhen Henry issued (1163) the Constitutions of Clarendon, defining therelationship between church and state, and ended (1170) with Becket'smurder, for which Henry was forced by public indignation to do penance.During his reign he gained northern counties from Scotland and increasedhis French holdings. He was also involved in family struggles. Encouragedby their mother and Louis Vi of France, his three oldest sons, Henry,Richard I, and Geoffrey, rebelled (1173-74) against him. The rebellioncollapsed, but at the time of Henry's death, Richard and the youngestson, John, were in the course of another rebellion. Henry III, 1207-72(r.1216-72), was the son of John. He became king under a regency and wasgranted full powers of kingship in 1227. In 1230, against the advice ofthe chief justiciar, Hubert de Burgh, he led an unsuccessful expeditionto Gascony and Brittany. He dismissed Hubert in 1232 and began a reign ofextravagance and general incapacity, spending vast sums on futile wars inFrance. Henry's absolutism, his reliance on French favorites, and hissubservience to the papacy aroused the hostility of the barons. Hisattempt to put his son, Edmund, earl of Lancaster, on the throne ofSicily (given to Henry by the pope) eventually led to the Barons' War.Simon de Montfort, the barons' leader, won at Lewes and summoned (1265) afamous Parliament, but Henry's son Edward I led royal troops to victoryat Evesham (1265), where de Montfort was killed. By 1267 the barons hadcapitulated, Prince Edward ruled the realm, and Henry was king in nameonly. Henry IV, 1367-1413, (r.1399-1413), was the son of John Of Gaunt.In 1387 he joined the opposition to Richard Ii and was one of the five"lords appellant" who ruled England from 1388 to 1389. In 1398 Richardbanished Henry and, after John's death in 1399, seized the family's vastLancastrian holdings. Counting on the king's unpopularity and his absencein Ireland, Henry invaded England and successfully claimed the throne,thus establishing the Lancastrian dynasty. His reign was spentsuppressing rebellions, notably by Richard's followers; by the Scots; bythe Welsh under Owen Glendower; and by Sir Henry Percy. He left thekingdom militarily secure but in debt. His son, Henry V, 1387-1422(r.1413-22), presided over the privy council during his father's illness.As prince of Wales (Shakespeare's "Prince Hal"), he led armies againstOwen Glendower and figured largely in the victory over the Percys. Theearly years of his reign were troubled by the rebellion of the Lollards(see Lollardry). Determined to regain lands he believed to be his, heinvaded France in 1415, thus reopening the Hundred Years War. Afterannouncing his claim to the French throne, he met and defeated a superiorFrench force at the famous battle of Agincourt. By 1420 he had conqueredNormandy, married Catherine Of Valois, and persuaded her father, CharlesVi of France, to name him his successor. He fell ill and died in 1422. Asking he ruled with justice and industry, restoring civil order and thenational spirit. Though his wars left the crown in debt, his charm,military genius, and care for his less fortunate subjects made him apopular hero. His son, Henry VI, 1421-71 (r.1422-61, 1470-71), becameking when he was not yet nine months old. During his early years Englandwas under the protectorate of two of his uncles. After their defeat atOrléans by Joan Of Arc, the English attempted to protect their Frenchinterests by crowning Henry king of France at Paris in 1431, but theircause was hopeless. Henry's rule was dominated by factions, and therewere many riots and uprisings indicating public dissatisfaction with thegovernment. The struggle between the faction headed by Henry's wife,Margaret Of Anjou, and Edmund Beaufort, duke of Somerset, and that headedby Richard, duke of York, developed into the dynastic battle between theLancasters and Yorks known as the Wars of the Roses. Henry went insane in1453. In 1455 Somerset was killed in the battle of St. Albans, and theYorkists gained control of the government. Margaret had control from 1456until 1460, when the Yorkists won a victory at Northampton and Henry wastaken prisoner. York, who had been named Henry's successor, was killed atWakefield in 1460, but his son Edward Iv defeated the Lancastrians andwas proclaimed king. Later he fled to Holland, and Henry was briefly(1470-71) restored. In 1471 Edward retook the throne, and Henry wasmurdered in the Tower of London. Henry was a mild, honest, pious man, apatron of literature and the arts, and the founder (1440) of EtonCollege. He was also unstable, weak-willed, and politically naïve. HenryVII, 1457-1509 (r.1485-1509), became head of the house of Lancaster atHenry VI's death. In 1485 he invaded England from France and defeated theforces of Richard Iii at the battle of Bosworth Field. The next year hemarried Edward IV's daughter, Elizabeth, thus uniting the houses of Yorkand Lancaster and founding the Tudor dynasty. Although his accessionmarked the end of the Wars of the Roses, the early years of his reignwere disturbed by Yorkist attempts to regain the throne, e.g., theimpersonations of Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck. He consolidatedEnglish rule in Ireland (1494) and effected a peace treaty with Scotland(1499), which was followed by the marriage of his daughter Margaret toJames Iv of Scotland. He established the Tudor tradition of autocraticrule tempered by justice and increased the powers of the Star Chambercourt. His son Henry VIII, 1491-1547 (r.1509-47), married his brotherArthur's widow, Katharine Of Aragón, who bore him a daughter, Mary I. Hischief minister, Thomas Wolsey, concluded an alliance with Francis I ofFrance. but Henry (despite the Field Of The Cloth Of Gold) joined (1522)Emperor Charles V in a war against France. England prospered internallyunder Wolsey, who had almost complete control. The court became a centerof learning, and the pope gave Henry the title "Defender of the Faith"for a treatise he wrote against Martin Luther. By 1527 Henry, desiring amale heir, wished to marry Anne Boleyn, but Pope Clement Vii, under thecontrol of Katharine's nephew, Charles V, resisted his demands for adivorce. Wolsey's failure in this affair caused his downfall, and ThomasCromwell became chief minister. An anti-ecclesiastical policy wasadopted, and the subservient Thomas Cranmer became archbishop ofCanterbury. He immediately pronounced Henry's marriage to Katharineinvalid. Papal powers were transferred to the king, who became thesupreme head of the English church. The break with Rome was now complete,and the Church of England was established. Anne, whom Henry immediatelymarried, had one daughter, Elizabeth I. The marriage ended in 1536, whenAnne was convicted of adultery and beheaded. Ten days later Henry marriedJane Seymour, who died in 1537 giving birth to Edward Vi. The king dealtharshly with rebellions against the abolition of papal supremacy and thedissolution of the monasteries. In 1537 he licensed the publication ofthe Bible in English. His marriage (1540) to Anne Of Cleves (whom hedisliked and soon divorced) led to the execution of Cromwell. He thenmarried Catherine Howard, who suffered (1542) Anne Boleyn's fate. In 1543Catherine Parr became his sixth queen. In 1542 war with Scotland beganagain, and Henry made unsuccessful attempts to unite the two kingdoms.Wales was officially incorporated into England (1536), but the conquestof Ireland proved too expensive. The end of Henry's reign saw a gradualmove toward Protestantism. Henry remained immensely popular, despite hisadvancement of personal desires under the guise of public policy or moralright. His political insight, however, grew steadily better, and thepower of Parliament increased. He gave England a comparatively peacefulreign
woman Princess Gundred England‏
Born ‎± 1063 at Normandy,France, died ‎ May 27, 1085 at Castle Acre,Acre,Norfolk,England‎, approximately 22 years
woman Adele Beauclerc deNormandy‏
Born ‎± 1067 at Normandy,France, died ‎ Mar 8, 1136/1137 at Mareigny-Sur-Loire,France‎, approximately 69 years
man King Henry I England‏
Born ‎ Sep 1068 at Selby,Yorkshire,England, died ‎ Dec 1, 1135 at St. denis,Seine-St. Denis,France‎, 67 years, buried ‎ at Reading Abbey (which he founded)
BIOGRAPHY: Henry was in reality a usurper. He imprisoned his older brother, Robert in Cardiff Castle in Wales, and it is said he had Robert's eyes put out. Henry reigned thirty-five years, not only over England, but over one third of France. In 1120 the White Ship went down on a hidden rock in the English Channel with the Crown Prince on board and it is said Henry Iis never known to have smiled again. He had only one child left, Maude, then a widow of the German Emperor Henry V. For political reasons she was next married to Geoffrey of Anjou, a boy of sixteen, ten years her junior. After the death of Henry I there was civil war between Matilda and her nephew Stephen,who got the throne for nineteen years. At one point in this contest Matilda had to escape from the Robert Doyley tower of Oxford Castle by sliding down a rope with gloved hands, the rope held by her favorite knight, Alain. She, with a few others dressed in white to avoid detection, crossed in the snowy night over the frozen Thames. The condition of the English people was deplorable during the reign of Henry I, owing to the blood-curdling cruelty of the Barons. Henry established a vigorous police system to check this, and tried to stop counterfeiting the money by mutilations. He oppressed his people by taxation.

Henry I was Duke of Normandy from 1106-1135 and King of England from1100-1135. William I left Normandy to his oldest son Robert II Curthoseand England to his next oldest son, William II Rufus. Henry was leftgreat wealth and eventually outmanuvered his brothers to become King ofEngland in 1100 and ruled 35 years. Henry is remembered for expanding andstrengthening royal justice, integrating the Norman and Anglo-Saxon legalsystems, and laying the foundation for more centralized royal rule. "TheEncyclopedia of the Middle Ages" Norman F. Cantor, General Editor.

Beauclerc King of England
woman Princess Anna England‏
Born ‎± 1066 at Normandy,France‎
man Henry I "Beauclerc" , King of England , King of England‏
Born ‎ 1069 at Selby,Yorkshire,England, died ‎ Dec 1, 1135 at Angers,Maine-et-Loire,France‎, 65 or 66 years, buried ‎ Jan 4, 1136 at Readding Abby,Berkshire,England
Adopted child: man King Henry I England‏

4th marriage
man King William The Conqueror‏‎, son of Duke Robert III Normandy and Herleva de Falaise‏.

Married ‎ at not married to:

woman Maud de Peverel‏‎
1st marriage to: King William The Conqueror, 2nd married/ related to: Ranulph dePeverel


man William "The Elder" Peverell Earl Of Hereford Earl Of Hereford‏
Nickname: the Elder, also known as: The Elder, born ‎± ABT. 1062 at Normandy, France, died ‎ Apr 17, 1113 at England‎, approximately 51 years

Earl Of Hereford
Note: William de Peveral is usually said to be an illegitimate son of the Conqueror. He had at least four children, William, d. s. p., and William again, who succeeded him, and two daughters, Maud and Adelise, the wife of Richard Redvers. The Conqueror gave William Peveral the custody of Notts Castle, when it was built in 1068, and extensive possessions, afterwards known as the honour of Peveral, consisting of 100 lordships in counties Notts and Northants, 14 in Derby, and some 20 others in other counties. William Peveral died Jan., 1113.

5th marriage
man King William The Conqueror‏‎, son of Duke Robert III Normandy and Herleva de Falaise‏.

Married ‎ 1050 at Castle Of, Angi, Normandy, France (32 or 33 years married) to:

woman Matilda Countess Of Flanders Queen Of England‏‎, daughter of Baudouin V Count Of Flanders and Adaele (Alix) Princess Of France‏.
Born ‎± 1031 at Of,, Flandres, died ‎ Nov 2, 1083 at , Caen, Normandie‎, approximately 52 years, buried ‎ at Eglise de La Sainte Trinitbe, Caen, Normandie


woman Gundred Princess Of England‏
Born ‎± 1063 at ,, Normandy, France, died ‎ May 27, 1085 at Castle Acre, Acre, Norfolk, England‎, approximately 22 years, buried ‎ at Priory, Lewes, Sussex, England