Louis I "The Pious" Holy Roman Emperor, son of Charlemagne I Holy Roman "@N42777@" Emperor and Hildegard of Swabia.
Born Aug 778 at Chasseneuil, Lot-et-Garonne near Poitiers, Aquitaine, France, died Jun 20, 840 at Petersaue, Ingelheim am Rhein, Rhineland Palatinate, Germany, 61 years, buried at Aachen Cathedral, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany
Called The Pious (778-840), Holy Roman emperor (814-40), king of France (814-40), king of Germany (814-40), and king of Aquitaine (781-840). He was the son of Charlemagne, king of the Franks. In 817 Louis made plans providing for the posthumous division of the Carolingian Empire among his three surviving sons, Lothair I, Holy Roman emperor, Louis II, king of Germany, and Charles II, Holy Roman emperor. His reign, however, was troubled by quarrels with his sons, who were dissatisfied with his arrangements for the succession. Louis was physically strong but was easily influenced and was unequal to administering the large empire that he inherited from his father.
In 781, at age 2, Louis I, "Le Pieux", was crowned and anointed King of Aquitaine by Pope Hadrian I, at the same time as his older brother Pepin was made King of Italy. Louis, whose twin brother had died at birth, was the third of Charlemagne's sons by his wife Hildegard. The Diviso Regni of 806indicates that Louis was to have Aquitaine as an independent kingdom upon his father's death. Aquitaine was in effect a March; for much of Louis' reign as sub-king he and his officials were occupied in quelling Gascon revolts and launching offensives into Spain. Unrest had never completely died out in the Pyrenees since the annexation of Aquitaine in 768, and more especially after the disastrous ambush of the Frankish vanguard in Roncesvalles in 778. In about 788, Chorso, Duke of Toulouse was captured by a Gascon named Adelric, and then released after being forced to swear an oath of allegiance to the Gascon or Basque leader. In 793, the Sarracens invaded Septimania, burned the suburbs of Narbonne and marched on Carcassonne, but in 795 Bahlul-ben-Machluc sued with Louis for peace. In 800, he successfully laid siege to Barcelona and subsequently captured Tortosa, Huesca and Pamplona and formed links with the Kingdom of the Asturias. Baptized: on 15 Apr 781; On 15 April 781, Louis was baptized by Pope Hadrian I in Rome. The next day, Easter Sunday, he was confirmed in his title of King of Aquitaine. Married in 794: Ermengarde d'Esbay, daughter of Engueran=Ingram, Count d'Esbay.
Note - between 800 and 837: Louis I established monasteries in Nouaille (a cell of St. Hilaire of Poitiers), Gellone and St. Martin-de-Tours.
After the death of his brothers Pepin and Charles in 810 and 811 respectively, Louis was crowned at Aachen on 13 September 813, Emperor and heir to all of Charlemagne's lands, by Charlemagne himself without any assistance nor even the presence of the Pope. All sources, Frankish as well as papal, refer to Louis as emperor from then on. Charlemagne died 5 months later. All of Louis' sisters were required to quit the palace and retire to their own estates. His cousins, the offsprings of Bernard (Pepin III's half brother) were exhiled: Louis forced Count Wala to become a monk at Corbie; Adalhard was exhiled to Noirmoutier to be held there in custody by the Abbot; Bernhard returned to Lerin and Gundrada had to retreat to St. Radegund's convent of Sainte Croix in Poitiers. Only Theodrada was left unmolested as abbess of Notre Dame at Soissons. Louis I was also known as Louis, "Le Pieux". On 27 February 814, upon learning of the death of his father, and at the age of 36 years, he left Doue-la-Fontaine, in Anjou, to go to Aix-la-Chapelle.
This new emperor, enterred this capital, and poised himself in front of the tomb of Charlemagne. So oversome with grief, his forehead touched the stone floor of the church. Hence the name "Le Pieux". Since he was kind, relative to his times, he was also known as "Le Debonnaire". For himself, he preferred to adopt the title "by divine Providence, Emperor Augustus". When Pope Leo died in May of 816, Stephen IV was elected Pope, and crowned Louis the Emperor on Sunday 5 October by placing a crown on his head during mass at Rheims. He also secured the release of some Roman exhiles in Francia. This crowning was among the first attempts to integrate the Papacy into the institutional framework of the Empire. Louis, 'lest he be led astray in satisfying the natural desires of the body' married Ermengarde, daughter of Count Ingramn. Charlemagne established Doue-la-Fontaine, Chasseneuil (Louis' birthplace), Angeac and Ebreuil as royal residences to maintain Louis and his household. At an assembly in Aachen in July 817, Louis made provisions for his sons' inheritance through the "Ordinatio Imperii". In his preface he states that the unity of the empire preserved for Louis by God should not be destroyed by men. Lothar was given the title of emperor, and as co-ruler with his father at once made heir to the empire, and appointed King of Italy in the event of his father's death. Bernard, then King of Italy was not mentioned, but the implication is that Bernard would be subordinate to Lothar should Louis die. Pepin was made King of Aquitaine (plus Gascony, Toulouse, Carcassonne, Autun, Avallon and Nevers) and Louis, The German, was made King of Bavaria (plus Carinthia, Bohemia, the lands of the Avars and Slavs and the royal manors of Lauterhofen and Ingolstadt). Pepin and Louis were to meet on an annual basis with Lothar to consult and together find "measures to take in the interest of perpetual peace". They could neither start a war nor marry without the approval of their elder brother. Lothar even had the right to de-throne them after three warnings. That same year, 817, Stephen IV obtains his political independence, thus severing the tie between Rome and the Frank Empire as conceived by Charlemagne. The arrangement was neat and all contingencies covered except for the one which took place. After his first wife's (Ermengarde) death, Louis, in 819, married the beautiful Bavarian Judith, daughter of Comte Welf of Bavaria. On 13 June 823 she gave birth to a son. He was called Charles. In September, 824, forgetting his nickname "Le Debonnaire", Louis totally ravages the Bretagne which was rebelling. In 829, at the General Assembly convoked in Worms (Wurm), Louis announces that he is forging a Duchy for his son, Charles, and gives him Alamania, Alsace, Rhetia, and part of Burgundy. The Co-Emperor Lothar, disagrees and has his name removed from imperial decrees and diplomas. Toward the end of 829, the political scene gets very complicated with allegations that Judith had intimate rapports with Bernard, Count of Barcelone, and ultimately desiring the death of the three sons of Hirmingarde. In Mai of 830, in Compiegne, Lothar and Pepin of Aquitaine lead a revolt. Louis is forced to cede on every point of contention. The apanage of the young Charles is eliminated, Judith is locked up in Poitiers at the Monastery of Sainte-Radegonde. In 831, the bishops would note how she had a talent for converting men's hearts and souls, and would allow her to rejoin her husband. In 832, Pepin and Louis revolt against their father. On 24 June 833, the Army of Louis Le Pieux faces those of the rebels. The field of battle in Rothfeld would be named the Field of the Lie (Lugenfeld). The Emperor and his sons begin negotiations. The night of 29 to 30 June, it is clear that the supporters of Louis would be influenced by his three sons. On the morning of 30 June, Louis would have to surrender. It would not be until 1 October that Louis would be deposed by the Assembly led by Agobard, Archbishop of Lyon and Eblon, Archbishop of Reims. On 7 October, Judith is sent to the Monastery of Tortone, Bernard to Prum, and Louis to the Monastery of Saint-Medard-de-Soissons, where in public ceremony, he is forced to lay down his sword, stripped of royal vestments, he is made to don the coarse cloth of a penitent. In 834, Louis and Pepin, tired of being under the control of their brother Lothar, decide to free their father. On 28 February, they succeed in freeing their father and in August in Blois, Lothar swears to Louis Le Pieux, that he would never leave Italy except by his direct command. Throughout 834, the Normands -- Danes, Swedes and Norwegians -- resume their raids. On 28 February 835, the General Assembly proclaims that Louis was innocent of all previous accusations thus clearing the way for him to be re-established as Emperor on the Throne at Saint-Stephen of Metz.
In 837, thanks to the intercessions of Judith, Charles "Le Chauve", receives a Kingdom composed of Frisia, between the Seine, the Meuse and the sea and in September 838, he receives the crown at Quierzy-sur-Oise. In 838, Marseille is devastated by the Sarrasins. On 30 May 839, the Empire is divided in half, with Lothar taking the East, and Charles' lands extend through Provence, Lyon, Toul and Geneva and all the lands of the West. Louis "the German", gets to keep only Bavaria. Married in 819: Judith de Baviere (3628), daughter of Welf II, Count de Baviere and Egilwich=Heilwig, Abbess de Challes ; Louis married Judith upon the death of his first wife, Ermengarde. She bore him a son named Charles in 823. It is clear that Louis was as fond of Charles as Jacob was of his Benjamin. Died: on 22 Jun 840 in Ingelheim, Germany, at age 61 In 840, while attempting to keep Louis "the German" in line, Louis "Le Pieux" is taken ill in Salz. Feeling near death, he sends Lothar his sword and the crown on the condition that he would be loyal to Judith and abide by the lands division agreed to in Worms in 839. He died on an island, near Ingelheim on 22 June. 309. Judith de Baviere (Andre Roux: Scrolls, 191.)
(Stuart, Royalty for Commoners, Page 130, Line 171-40.)
(Rosamond, Frankish kingdom under Carolingians, Page 136).
Married Name: de France. Born: circa 800 in Altdorf, Bavaria, daughter of Welf II, Count de Baviere (3626) and Egilwich=Heilwig, Abbess de Challes . Married in 819: Louis I, King de France , son of Charlemagne, Rex Francorum et Langobardorum and Hildegard, Countess de Linzgau ; Louis married Judith upon the death of his first wife, Ermengarde. She bore him a son named Charles in 823. It is clear that Louis was as fond of Charles as Jacob was of his Benjamin. Died: on 19 Apr 843 in Tours, Indre-et-Loire, Touraine, France.
Married 794 at France (23 or 24 years married) to:
Ermengarde de Hesbaye
Born 778 at Hesbaye, Liege, Belgium, died Oct 3, 818 at Angers, France, 39 or 40 years
1. Lothair I Holy Roman Emperor
Born 795 at Altdord, Bavaria, died Sep 29, 855 at Abbey of Pruem, Rheinland, Prussia, 59 or 60 years, buried at St Sauveur
Holy Roman emperor (840-55), and eldest son of Holy Roman Emperor Louis I, the Pious, and grandson of Charlemagne. Lothair became coruler with his father in 817 and was crowned by the pope six years later. He twice conspired with his brothers in revolts against their father. In 839 Lothair received the eastern part of the empire in addition to Italy, which he had received in 822. After the death of Louis I, Lothair attempted to assert his power over his brothers, but he was defeated by them at Fontenoy, France, on June 25, 841. By the Treaty of Verdun (843), the title of Holy Roman emperor was guaranteed to Lothair, together with sovereignty over Italy, Burgundy, Alsace, Lorraine, and the Low Countries. After having divided his kingdom among his three sons, Lothair retired to a monastery. His second son, sometimes called Lothair II (circa 835-69), reigned from 855 to 869 over the kingdom of Lotharingia.
2. Rotrude (Hildegarde) Princess of France
Born ± 803 at France, died Aug 23, 860, approximately 57 years
3. Louis II "The German" King of East Franks
Born ± 805 at Germany, died Aug 28, 876, approximately 71 years
Louis II, King of Germany
(Paul, Nouveau Larousse Universel, Page 86.)
(Stuart, Royalty for Commoners, Page 131, Line 172-41.)
(Andre Castelot, Histoire de La France, Tome 1, Page 369).
Also Known As: Louis "Le Germanique". AKA: Louis, King de Baviere. Born: either 804 or 806, son of Louis I, King de France and Ermengarde d'Esbay, Some sources assert that Louis was born in the year 806. There also is some disagreement as to whether this Louis should be Louis I or Louis II, King of Germany. The resolution to that disagreement lies in whether one can consider Louis' father as Louis I, King of Germany. Note - between 817 and 876: King of Allemania from 817 to 876. Following a new division of the Empire in favor of Charles "Le Chauve", Louis II joined his brothers Lothaire and Pepin in a revolt against their father King Louis I, "Le Debonnaire" (also "Le Pieux") of France. When Lotaire became Emperor, Louis II joined him in a fight against Charles "Le Chauve". In 858, Louis leaves Worms and invades his brother Charles' kingdom, with the support of Aquitaine and Bretagne. He begins to distribute the lands among counts and bishops. Charles in turn seeks refuge in Bourgogne. In Reims, on 25 November 858, the conference of bishops condemns Louis for the cruelty of his troops, sending Christian against Christian, and brother against brother. On 7 June 860, the brothers are reconciled in Saint-Castor de Coblence. Meanwhile the Normands pillage Amiens, Noyon, Beauvais, the Iberian peninsula and take Pisa in Italy. In 861, they devastate Paris. Upon the death of Lotaire II, Louis II got a part of Lorraine through the Treaty of Mersen (870). Married in 827 in Bavaria: Emma de Baviere, daughter of Welf, Count de Baviere . Died: on 28 Aug 876.
(Rosamond, Frankish kingdom under Carolingians, Page 180).
|2nd marriage |
Louis I "The Pious" Holy Roman Emperor, son of Charlemagne I Holy Roman "@N42777@" Emperor and Hildegard of Swabia.
Married Feb 2, 818/19 at Aix la Chapell, Austrasia (approximately 22 years married) to:
Judith of Bavaria, daughter of Welf (Guelph) III Duke of Bavaria and Edith Hedwig of Saxony.
Born 800 at Bavaria, Germany, died Apr 19, 843 at Tours, France, 42 or 43 years
1. Gisele of France
Born 820 at Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany, died Jul 1, 874, 53 or 54 years
2. Charles II "The Bald" Holy Roman Emperor
Born Jun 13, 823 at Frankfurt, Hessen-Nassau, Prussia, died Oct 6, 877 at Brides-les-Bain, Brios, France, 54 years, buried at St Denis, Paris, Ile-de-France, France
Charles II, King de France
(Andre Roux: Scrolls,191.)
(Stuart, Royalty for Commoners, Page 130, Line 171-39.)
(Rosamond, Frankish kingdom under Carolingians, Page 180.)
(Paul, Nouveau Larousse Universel.)
(Andre Castelot, Histoire de La France, Tome 1, Pages 369, 387).
AKA: Charles II, Emperor of the West. AKA: Charles II, King de Bourgogne. AKA: Charles II, King of Italy. Also Known As: Charles "Le Chauve".
Born: on 13 Jun 823 in Francfort-sur-le-Main, Germany, son of Louis I, King de France and Judith de Baviere , Some sources assert King Charles II was born in the year 829.
Note - between 824 and 875 in France: The birth of Charles II in 823 did not at first excite jealousy or rivalry among his brothers. In 829, Charles was granted the region of Alemannia, Rhaetia and part of Burgundy. In 837, his Father Louis I "Le Debonnaire", by arrangement with Louis the German and Pepin gave Charles the land West of the Meuse, Burgundy, Chartres and Paris together with all the bishops, abbots and counts who held benefices in these territories. A portion of Neustria was added in 838, and upon Pepin's death, Louis Le Pieux made Charles King of Aquitaine. On 24 July 840, the new Emperor, Lothar, in Strasburg, refuses to support the land claims of Charles (from the agreement of Worms on 30 May 839). The two brothers, Louis and Charles, unite against Lothar and the War of the Three Brothers begins. Meanwhile, on 12 May 841, the Normands ravage Rouen and all the localities along the Seine, increasing their wealth considerably. At Fontenoy-en-Puisaye (24 June 841), Charles defeats his brothers Lothar (in spite of the arrival of the Army of Aquitaine in the Imperial ranks -- and at a total loss of 40,000 lives at the battle) and Louis Le Germanique. Charles and Louis signed an alliance on 14 February 842 at Strasbourg. Leaving Strasbourg, the two brothers defeat the imperial army of Lothar just West of Comblence. Lothar leaves Aix-le-Chapelle precipitously, pursued by the two brothers. In Mellecey, not far from Chalon-sur-Saone, Lothar proposes a plan to establish perpetual peace which is acceptable to both Louis and Charles. On 15 June, they sign the preliminary peace document. On 1 October 842, each of them sends 40 commissioners to Metz to forge the official document. Prudence, the Bishop of Troyes, notes that Louis regained Germania in the East, Lothar gets the middle part of the Franc Kingdom, including Italy, and Charles obtains the Western lands (West of the Rhone, including Soissons). After that Charles goes to the Palace in Quierzy, where he marries Ermentrude.
Charles signed the Treaty of Verdun (843) which split the Kingdom of Charlemagne. By the Treaty, the destiny of Occidental Europe would be heavily influenced to this day. Louis obtains all lands East of the Rhine, including the cities of Spire, Worms, Mayence. Lothar gets all the lands extending between the Rhine and the Escaut, the Cambresis, the Hainaut, the country of Mezieres, and all the countships neighboring the Meuse, through the Saone and the Rhone, the Artois and Italy. Charles got all the lands East all the way to Spain. The Kingdom of Charlemagne thus was split forever, with the most serious rift between the germanic lands of Louis, and the French lands of Charles. The intervening lands extending from Frisia to Rome, from the North Sea to the Mediterranean including what would become Holland, Belgium, Lorraine and Switzerland would become a sore point of contention between these two peoples. The only thing that mattered to Lothar was the fact that both capitals (Aix and Rome) were located within his territory, thus legitimizing the title of Emperor.
Meanwhile, the Normands pillage Nantes and lower Aquitaine. Charles laid siege to Toulouse in vain (May to July 844). The Normands led by Ragnar Lodbrog arrive in Paris and must be heavily bribed to leave. Other Normand armies ravage Toulouse and Bordeaux (burned to the ground in 848). On 6 May 848, Duke Nomenoe proclaims the indepence of the Church of Bretagne and the following year proclaims himself King of Bretagne. Charles fought Brittany (Bretagne) in 845-851 and was victorious. Not liking Pepin II, the people of Aquitaine request Charles' help, and he obliges by accepting the Crown, and on 6 June 848 is consecrated King of Aquitaine, though he could not defend his kingdom against the Normands. He had Charles of Aquitaine jailed (849 in Corbie). In 850 Charles attacks Bretagne and leaves a garrison in Rennes. No sooner does he leave, that Nomenoe takes the city and then takes Nantes as well. The next year, Nomenoe ravages Maine, but, fortunately for Charles, the King of Bretagne dies suddenly on 7 March in Vendome. Charles has Pepin II locked in the Monastery of Saint-Medard de Soissons in 852. The Normands under Godfrid pillage Tours and Angers and penetrate via the Valley of Escaut all the way to the Seine. The loyalty of Aquitaine shifts in 853, and Louis the German is called upon to help against Charles le Chauve. He in turn defeats Louis and offers Aquitaine his son by Ermentrude, Charles, who would be crowned sovereign in Limoges in October 855. Both Pepin II and Charles d'Aquitaine escape raise armies against Charles le Chauve. Charles fought against Louis for Lorraine (859, 870 [Treaty of Mersen] and 875).
When Louis le Germanique becomes ill in 869 near Rastisbonne, shortly after his nephew Lothar II died, Charles see the opportunity to claim his heritage as Uncle of the deceased. He has himself annointed King of Lorraine in Metz on 9 September, by the Bishop Hincmar. In March, 867, Charles d'Aquitaine dies, and his father Charles le Chauve is recognized as King by the Assembly in Pouilly-sur-Loire. Upon the death of his nephew, Lothar II on 8 August 869, Charles sped to Lotharingia and had himself crowned King of Lotharingia annointed on 9 September in the cathedral at Metz by Bishop Adventius of Metz and Archbishop Hincmar of Rheims. In 9 August 870, through the Treaty of Meerseen, Louis "Le Germanique" and Charles "Le Chauve" reach an agreeable compromise whereby they divide the lands of Lothar II between themselves, leaving Louis II no part of the inheritance. As soon as Louis II died on 12 August 875, Charles rushed to Italy and received the imperial crown and is annointed by Pope John VIII on 25 December 875. In Pavia on 5 January 876, by acclamation of the counts and nobles of Italy, Charles becomes King of Italy. On 31 January 876, the Archbishop of Milan proclaims Charles as Emperor. The French ecclesiasticals and nobles, having some misgivings about Charles' ability to take care of his Kingdom meet in Ponthion. Charles joins them dressed in the attire of the Frankish King. As soon as they declare him elected and recognize his imperial authority, Charles donned the Byzantine crown, and purple vestment of emperor. When Louis le Germanique dies on 28 August 876, Charles claims Lorraine as his own. While on an expedition in Italy against the Sarrasins, through the specific request of Pope Jean VIII, Charles le Chauve dies at the foot of Mount Cenis.
Married on 13 Dec 842 in Quierzy-sur-Oise, Aisne, Ile-de-France, France: Ermentrude d'Orleans , daughter of Odon=Eudes, Count d'Orleans and Ingeltrude de Paris; Ermentrude was crowned Queen of France in 866, having already produced a number of children including 6 sons but none of them was satisfactory as far as Charles Le Chauve was concerned. By September 866, four of them were dead.
Married on 25 Nov 869 in Aix-la-Chapelle, France: Richilde de Bourgogne, daughter of Beuve=Bouin, Comte de Bourgogne and Richilde d'Arles; The honeymoon is short-lived, as Louis le Germanique demands, as part of his heritage from the death of his nephew Lothar II, a part of Lorraine. Died: on 6 Oct 877 in Avrieux, Dauphine, France, at age 54 Charles II is buried at Saint Denis although originally he was buried in Nantua. Before expiring, he named his son, Louis Le Begue as his successor, and the Empress Richilde, crowned by Pope Jean VIII earlier that year, is charged with taking the royal garbs and sword to her step-son.
3. Alpaide Princess of France
Born ± 825 at France