woman Aubree of Burgundy‏‎, daughter of Renaud of "Count of Bourgogne & Nevers, Renaud I of Burgundy" Burgundy and Judith of "Eleonora of Normandy" Normandy‏.
Born ‎± ABT. 1032 at in of Buonalbergo, Benevento, Italy, buried ‎ at Venosa Church
Name: Aubree de BOURGOGNE
Surname: Bourgogne
Given Name: Aubree de
_AKA: Aubree
Sex: F
Birth: ABT 1032 in of Buonalbergo,Benevento,Italy
Burial: Venosa Church
Reference Number: Newlin
_UID: 582DC44D66CF3542AB4B215FD6F2EE77E55C
Note:
!1st wife of Robert Guiscard. [Oxford History of Medieval Europe]

NEWLIN LINE - 28th ggrandmother

m. Robert Guiscard in abt 1050; she was relative of a Norman holding a substantial estate at Buonalbergo near Benevento; mother of Mark/Bohemund. [The Norman Achievement, p. 41]

m. Robert Guiscard 1054, div. 1058. [Charlemagne & Others, Chart 3338b]

b. aaft 1016, d. aft Jul 1122; dau of Renaud/Raymond I of Burgundy and Alice/Adelaide/Judith of Normandy; m. Robert I 'Guiscard' de Hauteville. [Gary Lewis 1 2 3 4
Change Date: 23 Jun 2003 at 20:39:57

Father: Renaud I de BOURGOGNE Count Burgundy & Nevers b: ABT 0986 in of Bourgogne,France
Mother: Judith of NORMANDY b: 1003 in Normandy,France

Marriage 1 Robert the Wily GUISCARD Duke of Apulia b: ABT 1027 in of Apulia,Italy
Divorced: Y
Married: BEF 1052 in Buonalbergo, Benevento, Italy
Children
Bohemond I Mark of ANTIOCH Prince of Antioch b: ABT 1057 in of Taranto,Italy

Sources:
Title: Royal House of Jerusalem: Counts of Edessa: Lords of Sidon and Caesarea Pedigree Chart
Repository:
Name: Cheryl Varner Library

Title: The Oxford History of Medieval Europe
Author: Holmes, George, ed.
Publication: Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1992
Repository:
Name: Cheryl Varner Library

Title: The Norman Achievement, 1050-1100
Author: Douglas, David C.
Publication: University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1969
Page: p. 41
Repository:
Name: Denver Public Library

Title: Charlemagne, Alfred the Great and Other Ancestors
Author: Mitchell, James T.
Publication: 1991
Page: Chart 3338b
From 'Glick/Foster Ancestry' at Rootsweb.com

Married ‎before BEF. 1052 at Buonalbergo, Benevento, Italy; 1st wife (at least 33 years married) to:

man Robert "'the Wily'" Guiscard, Duke of Apulia‏‎, son of Tancred of Hauteville and Fredesende of Normandy‏.
Born ‎± ABT. 1027 at in of Apulia, Italy, died ‎ Jul 17, 1085 at Phiscardo Bay, Cephallonia, Sicily‎, approximately 58 years, ‎1st marriage to: Aubree of Burgundy, 2nd marriage to: Sichelgaita of Lombardy
Name: Robert the Wily GUISCARD Duke of Apulia
Surname: Guiscard
Given Name: Robert the Wily
NSFX: Duke of Apulia
Sex: M
Birth: ABT 1027 in of Apulia,Italy
Death: 17 Jul 1085 in Phiscardo Bay,Cephallonia,Sicily
DSCR: tall, ruddy complexion, fair hair
Reference Number: Newlin
_UID: 5AB857881D12FB488B714C0A1E7735CF4E09
Note:
!Norman duke of Apulia and Calabria in southern Italy. [Funk & Wagnalls]

FOSTER, NEWLIN LINE - 27th ggrandfather

!Started his fantastic career in Italy in 1047. Captured Durazzo and began his invasion of the eastern empire in 1081. First Norman Duke of Apulia and Calabria; count of Sicily. [Leaders & Landmarks]

!The Latin epic poem, "La Geste de Robert Guiscard", was written by William of Apulia about this Robert. [The Norman Advantage]

!Known as "the Wise", fought and schemed so effectually as to promote himself to the title of Duke of Apulia. [Leaders & Landmarks, Vol. II, p. 32]

Anna Comnena, who hated him, writes that he was of a tyrannous temper, in mind most cunning, and brave in action. Tall in stature and well proportioned, ruddy complexion, flaxen hair, broad shoulders, eyes that emitted sparks of fire. His shouting was loud enough to terrify armies, indomitable and ready to submit to nobody in the world. He arrived in Italy in 1047, and the start of his career was sordidly inconspicuous, as with a few followers he haunted the hills hiding in caves, and issuing out to attack travellers and rob them of their horses and weapons. He looted the inhabitants of Calabria without discrimination, and on occasion he stretched his depredations northwards in order to dispute the profits of pillage with his elder half-brothers. His growing power ws indicated by his marriage about 1050 with Aubree, the relative of a Norman holding a substantial estate at Buonalbergo near Benevento, and by her he was to have a son who was baptised Mark, but who on account of his size when in his mother's womb was to receive the nickname of the giant Bohemund, which he later made famous throughout Christendom. The marriage also marked the beginnings of Robert Guiscard's own successes as a conqueror. From this time forwards he 'devoured land'. [The Norman Achievement, p. 41-2]

Between 1050-60 the settlements of Aversa and at Melfi were transformed into the Norman principality of Capua and into the Norman duchy of Apulia due to the efforts of Richard of Aversa and Robert Guiscard. [The Norman ..., p. 53]

Following his brother Humfrey's death in 1057, Robert took the lead in the Norman advance in Apulia. His chief opponent was Gisulf II of Salerno, but in 1058 this man consented to treat with Robert and, in token of the pact between them Guiscard repudiated his Norman wife Aubree, and married Sigelgaita, Gisulf's sister. [The Norman Achievement, p. 54-55]

Received as a vassal of Pope Nicholas II at Melfi in August 1059 with the ominous title of Duke of Apulia and Calabria by the Grace of God and of St. Peter; and, with their help in the future, Duke of Sicily. [The Norman, p. 55]

Bari surrendered to him on 16 April 1071 and the rule of the eastern emperor in southern Italy, which had endured for over 5 centuries came to an end. [The Norman, p. 56]

Beginning in 1074, Pope Gregory VII excommunicated Robert Guiscard three times over a 6-year period in respect of his seizure of Amalfi, Salerno and the march of Fermo. [The Norman, pp. 59-60]

After the death of the Eastern Emperor Michael VII, Robert produced a Greek impostor whom he declared to be the deposed Emperor Michael, and he prepared to invade the eastern empire. At Ceprano, Gregory VII actually recognized the pseudo-Michael, and it was with papal support, and under a papal banner that in May 1081, Robert, together with his son Bohemund, set sail from Otranto with a considerable force. Having safely crossed the Adriatic, they seized the island of Corfu, and moved forward to attack Durazzo. He met unexpected opposition in the form of Emperor Alexis I and the seige continued through the winter while his enemies gathered back in Apulia -- Emperor Henry IV leading the pack. Bohemund was left to carry on the campaign against Alexis, while Robert returned to cover his flank. Bohemund was so successful that he began to threaten Constantinople itself. Nonetheless, he was defeated in 1083 by the imperial troops at Larissa, and one by one the Norman gains in the Balkans were lost. By the time Robert reached Rome, Emperor Henry had entered the city which was under flames and wholesale robbery, rape and murder. The loss of life must have been great, and many of the leading citizens were sent in slavery to Calabria. Both Gregory VI and Robert Guiscard died in 1085, Robert just as he was beginning another campaign on the island of Cephallonia. [The Norman, pp. 61-2]

The Calabrians who came with R.G. to Civitate must have been serving him for pay; and mercenaries from southern Italy were being hired to support the expeditions which he and Roger took to Sicily in 1060, 1061, and 1072. Stipendiary troops from Apulia assisted the Norman capture of Bari in 1071, and soldiers from Calabria are known to have accompanied R.G. and Bohemund when they crossed the Adriatic in 1081. Even more noteworthy were the circumstances of R.G.'s march against Rome in 1084. Early in 1083 he levied an exceptionally heavy tribute on Bari, and he collected a large tax from all over Apulia and Calabria to pay for the soldiers he was to lead against Henry IV in the following year. It was certainly a very mixed army which went to the sack of Rome in 1084, but there were Saracens in it, and Moslem troops were constantly in the pay of Roger the Great Count. [The Norman, p. 78]

The earliest Norman settlements in Italy were in the hill strongholds of Aversa and Melfi, and before 1055 R.G. was erecting castles in Calabria such as Scribla in the Val di Crati, at Rossano, and in the neighborhood of Cozenza, both at San Marco Argentano and at Scalea. When Roger came to Italy in 1056, R.G. at once set him up in a stronghold at Mileto, and the two brothers followed the same practice in Sicily. [The Norman, p. 86]

When R.G. died in 1084, his sons and brother, with their followers, fell-a-fighting over his inheritance. R.G. himself had been compelled to face feudal opposition in Apulia in 1074, 1078, and 1082. [The Normans, p. 88]

Hildebrand seated himself firmly at Rome, rebuking the heterodox Lombards, and demanding loyalty from the turbulent Normans, whose chief, Robert Guiscard, he solemnly excommunicated for ravaging the property of the Holy See. [Leaders & Landmarks, Vol. II, pp. 39-40]

Charlemagne & Others, Chart 3333b
1 2 3 4 5 6
Change Date: 23 Jun 2003 at 20:45:18

Father: Tancred, Seigneur de HAUTEVILLE b: ABT 0975 in Hauteville-le-Guichard,Coutances,Normandy
Mother: Fresende de NORMANDY b: ABT 0996 in Normandy, France

Marriage 1 Aubree de BOURGOGNE b: ABT 1032 in of Buonalbergo,Benevento,Italy
Divorced: Y
Married: BEF 1052 in Buonalbergo, Benevento, Italy
Children
Bohemond I Mark of ANTIOCH Prince of Antioch b: ABT 1057 in of Taranto,Italy

Marriage 2 Sichelgaita of LOMBARDY b: ABT 1030 in of Salerno,Lombardy,Italy
Married: 1058/1059
Children
Matilda d' HAUTVILLE b: ABT 1058 in of Apulia, Sicily
Sibylla GUISCARD b: ABT 1060 in of Apulia,Sicily
Emma GUISCARD b: ABT 1062 in Apulia, Italy
Roger BORSA Duke of Apulia b: ABT 1063 in of Apulia,Italy
Helena GUISCARD b: ABT 1064 in of Apulia, Sicily
Mabel GUISCARD b: ABT 1066 in of Apulia, Sicily
Guy GUISCARD b: ABT 1070 in ,,,Sicily

Sources:
Title: Royal House of Jerusalem: Counts of Edessa: Lords of Sidon and Caesarea Pedigree Chart
Repository:
Name: Cheryl Varner Library

Title: The Oxford History of Medieval Europe
Author: Holmes, George, ed.
Publication: Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1992
Repository:
Name: Cheryl Varner Library

Title: Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia
Author: Bram, Leon L. V.P. and Ed. Dir.; Dickey, Norma H. Editor-in-Chief
Publication: Funk & Wagnalls, Inc., 1986
Repository:
Name: Cheryl Varner Library

Title: Leaders & Landmarks in European History, Volume II: The Middle Ages
Author: Moncrieff, A.R. Hope; Chaytor, The Rev. H.J., M.A..
Publication: The Gresham Publishing Company, London, 1913
Page: p. 32-40
Repository:
Name: Cheryl Varner Library

Title: The Norman Achievement, 1050-1100
Author: Douglas, David C.
Publication: University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1969
Page: p. 41-42, 53-88
Repository:
Name: Denver Public Library

Title: Charlemagne, Alfred the Great and Other Ancestors
Author: Mitchell, James T.
Publication: 1991
Page: Chart 3333b
From 'Glick/Foster Ancestry' at Rootsweb.com

Child:

1.
man Boemond I Mark of Antioch, Prince of Antioch‏
Born ‎ 1058 at in of Taranto, Italy, died ‎ /11 at Canosa di Puglia, Bari, Apulia, Italy‎, -1048 or -1047 years
Name: Bohemond I Mark of ANTIOCH Prince of Antioch
Surname: Antioch
Given Name: Bohemond I Mark of
NSFX: Prince of Antioch
Sex: M
Birth: ABT 1057 in of Taranto,Italy
Death: 1110/1111 1
DSCR: tall, broad shouldered, handsome
Reference Number: Newlin
_UID: 26977A457D76CA469EE83B5B1D6BD08A7DFE
Occupation: Prince from 1099 to 1111 Antioch 2
Note:
!Prince of Antioch 1098-1111. [Oxford History of Medieval Europe]

NEWLIN LINE

!Leader of the First Crusade, and founder of a Crusader dynasty in Syria. Eldest son of Robert Guiscard. Distinguished himself in a war (1081-85) against the Byzantine Empire. After his father's death in 1085, the Norman domain was divided between Bohemond and his brother. Bohemond joined the First Crusade to try to extend his possessions. As long as he remained with the Crusaders, Bohemond was their leader, although he was not officially recognized as such. Antioch was captured in June 1098, and Bohemond received it as a principality. He was captured by the Muslims in 1100 and held prisoner until 1103. After suffering a great defeat in 1104, he returned to western Europe to seek help. During his stay in France, he married the daughter of King Philip I of France. By 1107 he was head of a large army of adventurers who had been attracted by his military reknown, but instead of returning to Antioch, he led his forces against the Byzantine Empire which had restricted the expansion of his principality after 1098. His attack was unsuccessful and Bohemond was forced to accept a peace that made him a vassal of the Byzantine emperor. Bohemond's descendants ruled Antioch until 1268 and Tripoli from 1187-1289. [Funk & Wagnalls]

!2nd husband of Princess Constance of France; father of Bohemond II, Prince d'Antioche. [Ped. of Charlemagne, Vol. I, p. 267]

Son of Robert Guiscard and Aubree. Baptized "Mark" but given the nickname "Bohemund" after the giant because of his size in his mother's womb. [The Norman Achievement, p. 42]

Challenged the succession of his half-brother Roger Borsa following their father's death. He at once seized the cities of Oria, Otranto and Taranto, and in 1090 was actually in possession of Bari itself. Count Roger intervened and ended up dominating southern Italy himself. [The Norman, p. 64]

When the first Crusaders came to southern Italy, Bohemund joined them. His motives were doubtless complex, but with all his cunning there was a strain of romantic rashness in him, and he may have been genuinely moved by the impulse to rescue the Holy Places. But he also had his private ambitions to satisfy.
His recent advances in Apulia had been checked by his uncle Roger from Sicily, and his earlier campaigns in Greece and Thrace may have led him to hope for conquests in the east. In this respect his aspirations were evidently shared by the remarkable company which formed around him, and which resembled one of those Norman groups that in the previous generation had fought their way to power in Italy. [The Norman, p. 65]

He made such an impression on the young Byzantine princess, Anna Comnena, that in her old age she wrote, "He was so tall that he stood above the tallest. He was thin in loin and flank; broad shouldered and full chested; muscular in every limb; and neither lean nor corpulent but excellently proportioned. His hands
were full of action, his step firm, his head well enough set, though if you looked close you saw that he stooped a little. His body was very white all over, though in his face the white was mingled with red. His hair was blond and cut short to the ears. He was closely shaven. His blue-grey eyes gave him dignity but they could flash with anger. A certain charm hung about this man but was partly marred by a general air of the horrible. For in the whole of his body the entire man showed himself implacable and savage both in his size andglance, and even his laughter sounded to others like snorting. He was so made in mind and body that both courage and passion reared their crests within and both inclined to war." Such a man was destined to command, and by the time the Crusade reached Antioch late in 1097 Bohemund, who had taken a prominent part in the victory of Dorlaeum earlier in the year, was firmly established among the leaders. [The Norman, pp. 65-66]

Granted Antioch following the Great Battle of Antioch by his fellow crusaders, his red banner then flew over Antioch. Lacking a legitimate title, he approached the Pope becoming a nominal vassal with his investiture as Prince of Antioch in 1100 at the hands of Daimbert, archbishop of Pisa, the papal legate. Though Bohemund's later career was to be chequered, he was succeeded by his nephew Tancred and then by no fewer than six successors bearing the nickname he had made so famous. Indeed, the Norman dynasty at Antioch was to outlast the Norman dynasty in England, and even the Norman dynasty in Sicily. [The Norman, pp. 66-67]

One of the first acts of Bohemund when in precarious possession of Antioch in 1099 was to secure the cooperation of the Genoese fleet. [The Norman, p. 84]

It was Bohemund's greatest distinction as a tactician to make full use of his infantry in support of his mounted knights. [The Norman, p. 85]

Son of Robert Guiscard; m. Constance of France; father of Bohemund II. [Byzantium: The Decline and Fall, Family Trees]

Of all the leaders of the First Crusade, there was one whom Alexius Comnenus mistrusted more than any other. Bohemund, now Prince of Taranto, was the eldest son of Robert Guiscard who, had he not succombed to the most fortunate epidemic 12 years before, might well have displaced Alexius on the Byzentine throne. The fact that Robert had divorced Bohemund's mother to marry the formidable Sichelgaita, adn that he had subsequently left his Italian dominions to the latter's son Roger Borsa, made Bohemund more dangerous than ever: having nother to hope for in Italy, he could be expected to cause still greater havoc in the East. Moreover, his military reputation was unmatched in Europe.
Bohemund captured Antioch and expelled its Greek Patriarch and replaced him with a Latin. In the summer of 1100 Bohumund was captured by local Turks and carried off in chains to a far-away castle in Pontus. There he remained for three years until he was finally ransomed by Baldwin, who had become King of
Jerusalem in succession to his brother Godfrey. By the time Bohemund was released in 1103, the Crusaders were fighting Arabs, Turks and Byzantines more or less indiscriminately, with occasional brief truces; and in the early summer of 1104 they suffered a crushing defeat by the Turks at Harran, near Edessa. Bohemund's army escaped but the forces of Edessa were massacred almost to a man. Both Baldwin and his cousin, Joscelin of Courtenay, were captured. Bohemund, now dangerously threatened, left in the late autumn of 1104 for Europe to raise reinforcements. Arriving in Apulia early in 1105, he moved on to Rome in September to see Pope Paschal II. In a lifetime spent fighting the Eastern Empire, Bohemund never did it more harm than he did in those conversations with Pope Paschal. Henceforth his own narrow, predatory policy became the official policy of Christendom. Those Crusaders who for whatever reason dislike the Byzantines, now found their prejudices endorsed by the highest authority. To Alexius and his subjects, the entire Crusade was now
revealed as nothing more than a monstrous exercise in hypocrisy.
In September 1107 he once again attacked Byzantium; this time Alexius was ready for him. The invaders were surrounded and soon fell prey to famine and malaria and were forced to surrender. Bohemund was forced to swear fealty to the Emperor and recognize him as his suzerain for the Principality of Antioch
and to replace his Latin Patriarch with a Greek.
His career was over. He returned to Apulia, leaving Antioch in the hands of his nephew Tancred. He had been a charismatic leader of men; but his ambition had betrayed him and brought him low. He died three years later in relative obscurity, never again having dared to show his face in Outremer. [A Short History of Byzantium, p. 258-261]

c. 1056-1111. Norman adventurer from southern Italy, the son of Robert Guiscard, who became the ruler of the crusader state of Antioch from 1099-1111. He made himself prince of Antioch in contravention of his oath of allegiance to the Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus in 1097 and in defiance of Raymond, count of Toulouse, leader of the crusade. He was captured by Muslims in 1100, released in 1103, and returned to Europe, where he married the daughter of Philip I of France. His campaign against the Byzantine empire was humiliatingly crushed by Alexius in 1108, and he never returned to Syria. [The Plantagenet Encyclopedia, p. 33]
3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Change Date: 19 Mar 2003 at 17:13:01

Father: Robert the Wily GUISCARD Duke of Apulia b: ABT 1027 in of Apulia,Italy
Mother: Aubree de BOURGOGNE b: ABT 1032 in of Buonalbergo,Benevento,Italy

Marriage 1 Constance CAPET Princess of France b: ABT 1078 in France
Married: ABT 1104 in ,,,France
Children
Bohemond II, Prince of ANTIOCH b: ABT 1107 in of Antioch,Greece

Sources:
Repository:
Name: Cheryl Varner Library

Title: The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition
Author: Stearns, Peter N., General Editor
Publication: Houghton Mifflin, New York, 2001
Page: The House of Tancred (1057-1287)
Repository:
Name: Cheryl Varner Library

Title: The Plantagenet Encyclopedia
Author: Hallam, Elizabeth, General Editor
Publication: Cresent Books, New York, 1996
Page: p. 33
Title: Royal House of Jerusalem: Counts of Edessa: Lords of Sidon and Caesarea Pedigree Chart
Repository:
Name: Cheryl Varner Library

Title: The Oxford History of Medieval Europe
Author: Holmes, George, ed.
Publication: Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1992
Repository:
Name: Cheryl Varner Library

Title: Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia
Author: Bram, Leon L. V.P. and Ed. Dir.; Dickey, Norma H. Editor-in-Chief
Publication: Funk & Wagnalls, Inc., 1986
Title: Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. I
Author: von Redlich, Marcellus Donald Alexander R.
Publication: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, 1986
Page: p. 267
Repository:
Name: Cheryl Varner Library

Title: The Norman Achievement, 1050-1100
Author: Douglas, David C.
Publication: University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1969
Page: p. 42, 64-67, 84-85
Repository:
Name: Cheryl Varner Library

Title: Byzantium: The Decline and Fall
Author: Norwich, John Julius
Publication: Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1996
Page: Family Trees
Repository:
Name: Cheryl Varner Library

Title: A Short History of Byzantium
Author: Norwich, John Julius
Publication: Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1997
Page: p. 267-8
From 'Glick/Foster Ancestry' at Rootsweb.com